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Hypertension is a very common disorder. Unfortunately, for a long time, people do not suspect about it and hypertension is almost asymptomatic. Patients for the first time learn about the problem only when the pressure readings are off the scale. Hypertension is a very dangerous and insidious disease that harms various organs and systems of the body. Let’s take a closer look at this important issue.
Table of contents:
- What does high blood pressure entail?
- How to recognize hypertension?
- What are the consequences for the cardiovascular system?
- The complications for the nervous system
- What are the consequences for the kidneys?
- The consequences for the eyes
- What is the relationship between hypertension and potency in men?
- Prevention of hypertension
- Useful links
Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially in developed countries. Statistics say that up to 30% of the adult population suffers from hypertension. With age, the prevalence of the hypertension increases and reaches 65% in people of retirement age.
A persistent increase in blood pressure can have a variety of reasons. The emergence of hypertension contributes to more than 20 combinations in the human genetic code. Essential or primary hypertension is the most common form of hypertension (up to 95%), diagnosed by excluding hypertension of a different etiology.
The remaining cases of hypertension are called secondary, symptomatic, based on the symptom of high blood pressure, renal, endocrine, hemodynamic dysfunctions. This disorder is caused by the use of certain medications, dietary supplements (most often this is a combination of long-term use of oral contraceptives, smoking, and overweight). Besides, doctors distinguish pregnant arterial hypertension.
Hypertension develops as a result of a spasm of small vessels and a violation of the blood supply process. Doctors believe that the hypertension often affects people exposed to stressful situations, intensively consuming sodium chloride, overweight. In the initial stages of development, the hypertension does not face serious consequences. However, if you do not start timely treatment with drugs, then the pathology will lead to damage of the heart tissues and other organs and systems. Therefore, it is important for people suffering from high blood pressure to know what hypertension is, how dangerous the pathology is, and what consequences the patient’s inaction can entail.
What does high blood pressure entail?
The effects of high blood pressure can be critical for many organs and systems. A lot of medical research has been devoted to this problem. Specialists have developed effective programs to prevent them. However, it is often not possible to cope with the negative effects of pressure fluctuations.
Let’s consider the main organs that suffer from hypertension:
- At the time of spasm of the vessels supplying the optic nerve, a retinal failure occurs. The integrity of arterioles and venules is damaged. This entails a significant visual impairment in hypertensive patients
- Abnormal functioning is noted in the renal elements. Against the background of increased pressure, they cease to fully remove toxins and urine. Stagnation occurs, threatening the well-being of a person
- Vascular catastrophe in the brain structures becomes an extremely negative result. Foci of ischemia or hemorrhage from damaged arteries at the time of crisis threaten with serious consequences, up to paresis, paralysis, disability
- Against the background of ischemia, nutrients enter an insufficient volume directly into the heart tissue itself, angina pectoris, heart failure, and then myocardial infarction are formed. In severe cases, a person becomes disabled, death is possible
- A direct consequence of physical or psychoemotional overwork becomes a hypertensive crisis. This is a jump in blood pressure to individually high parameters. A person experiences a sudden significant deterioration in well-being
- The cause of erectile dysfunction is a lack of nutrient intake through blood vessels clogged with cholesterol plaques
Enormous educational work among the population is being carried out by medical workers to prevent the above consequences and complications.
A number of factors and variables can put you at a greater risk for developing high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension). Understanding these risk factors can help you be more aware of how likely you are to develop high blood pressure .
How to recognize hypertension?
At the very beginning, hypertension is almost not clinically apparent. A person may not be aware of half his life that he has high blood pressure and lead an active life. Weakness and headaches are usually attributed to fatigue. A doctor is usually consulted when painful sensations arise in target organs, which are the first to respond to increased pressure.
Initial changes in blood circulation in the vessels of the brain include dizziness, pain, and noise in the head, decreased memory, mental and physical activity, and fatigue. A bursting headache appears with hypertension at any time, but more often at night or in the early morning. Pain increases with coughing, sneezing, turning and tilting the head, straining the body.
Symptoms of progressive hypertension:
- Prolonged pain in the region of the apex of the heart or on the left side of the chest, arrhythmia, palpitations
- Visual disturbances: flickering flies, blur
- Numbness, swelling of the arms and legs, puffiness of the face
- Difficulty in speech, ringing in the ears
- Dyspnea during physical activity or at night
- Increased sweating, a feeling of heat, redness of the face
- Unexplained anxiety
- Nervous breakdowns, chronic fatigue
It is worth noting that an experienced doctor can diagnose arterial hypertension by the appearance of the patient, but laboratory tests must confirm his verdict.
What are the consequences for the cardiovascular system?
Against the background of high blood pressure, there is a spasm of blood vessels that provide blood supply to organs. Nutrients and oxygen come in much smaller volumes. Foci of local ischemia are created. In addition to the vessels themselves, the brain, the heart muscle, as well as the kidneys and visual structures, suffer from hypertension.
Due to constant overload, the heart is forced to function in a rhythm unusual for it. The fabrics wear out and warp. Heart failure is forming. The higher the pressure, the harder the heart muscle. It copes worse with its functional responsibilities: to maintain an optimal level of blood circulation.
Compensating the negative effects of pressure fluctuations and overload, the departments of the heart begin to expand, their wall thickens. However, compensatory opportunities end sooner or later. Severe complications appear arrhythmia, edema, heart failure.
The risk of heart attack also becomes higher against the background of almost daily ischemia. The need for nutrients and oxygen does not match what is delivered through the blood vessels. Staying in a state of hypoxia contributes to the gradual death of cells. Connective tissue replaces them. This exacerbates the negative situation.
The complications for the nervous system
Due to thickening, as well as compaction of the vascular wall, sclerosis and a significant crimp of the brain structures are observed. Gradually they squeeze the veins. Such changes affect the well-being of a person. Doctors have noted the following early clinical manifestations:
- the various intensity of dizziness
- pain impulses in the neck area against the background of pressure surges
- noise in ears
- visual impairment
- fainting conditions during crises
With massive atherosclerosis, the blood supply to the brain structures significantly deteriorates. Memory, attention, intellectual activity begin to suffer.
Frequently repeated ischemic attacks or microbleeds in brain tissue significantly worsen the prognosis of life for hypertensive patients. Both intellectual and physical activities suffer. People become disabled, requiring constant outside care.
High blood pressure may play a role in dementia and cognitive decline over time. Reduced blood flow to the brain causes memory and thinking problems .
Adequate timely pharmacotherapy (for example, Aldactone) helps to significantly reduce the risk of the above effects of hypertension. However, the patient should consult his doctor in time for recommendations on the selection of medications.
What are the consequences for the kidneys?
Changes in the vascular structures of the kidneys are recorded no less than in muscle tissue or the retina. They lead to a significant decrease in the filtration rate, as well as tubular dysfunction.
Pathological damage to the kidneys provokes the leakage of protein into the urine, as well as microhematuria – the passage of blood particles into the urine. All this leads to the appearance of symptoms of renal failure and a significant deterioration in well-being.
The gradual death of renal tissue cells provokes a persistent increase in the parameters of diastolic pressure and spasmodic vascular structures in other organs. A person begins to worry about the consequences of hypertension, such as frequent, profuse nightly urination, as well as intense skin itching due to the impossibility of fully removing the accumulated toxins in the urine.
In the later stages of the disorder, attacks of cardiac asthma, severe pulmonary edema, various disturbances of consciousness up to a coma appear. Compensating for such conditions can be difficult. As a result, renal dysfunction leads to death.
The consequences for the eyes
Characteristic changes in the vascular plexuses of the retina with hypertension are one of the first signs of the appearance of pathology. A specialist, examining the fundus, judges the severity of changes and the severity of the hypertension.
The most important structural modification of vascular structures in hypertension is hypertrophy of the central mucosa. In severe cases of the hypertension, not only glazing and segmentation occurs, but also retinal atrophy. The lumen of the vessels undergoes a steady narrowing.
Slowing down of negative manifestations is facilitated by timely completed courses of pharmacotherapy, the constant intake of modern antihypertensive drugs.
What is the relationship between hypertension and potency in men?
How are things with high blood pressure? This pathology leads to systemic body disorders. Doctors have noted a decrease in blood supply to the cavernous bodies of the penis in men. A full-fledged high-quality erection requires good blood flow. An increased level of intravascular pressure leads to overstretching of the vascular wall. The resulting tears in the inner lining of the arteries are filled with connective tissue elements, which causes deterioration in elasticity and disease such as atherosclerosis.
The diseases of hypertension and impotence, as well as the relationship between them, have long been studied by medicine. The thickening of the arterial wall and the deterioration of its elastic qualities adversely affect the ability of the cavernous bodies of the penis to fill with blood and expand. Studies have confirmed that about half of men suffering from hypertension have a problem with worsening erection. It should be noted that the conducted surveys confirmed the presence of this symptom both in men involved in treatment and in patients who let the hypertension drift.
We can conclude that the cause maybe not only hypertension and secondary atherosclerosis, but also the medications taken to normalize ED.
Prevention of hypertension
We cannot change the genetic predisposition to the hypertension. But everyone is capable of leading a healthy lifestyle and eating right. Prevention of arterial hypertension can be divided into primary and secondary. Primary (prevention of the onset of the hypertension) includes the following factors:
- the exclusion of bad habits: smoking, drug use, alcohol abuse
- normalization of body weight
- increased physical activity
- increase stress tolerance (sometimes with the help of psychologists)
- a balanced diet with a low amount of salt
Secondary (if already diagnosed with arterial hypertension) prophylaxis includes recommendations for the prevention of complications:
- following all the instructions of the doctor
- accurate intake of prescribed drugs to stabilize blood pressure
- strict diet
- systematic monitoring of blood pressure in the morning and evening
Doctors say that foods such as fruits, vegetables, unsaturated fats (linseed, olive oil, and redfish) help prevent the development of hypertension. It is better to refuse forever the excess of fatty, fried and sweet. Doctors recommend hiking, cycling, swimming, skiing, jogging, various types of fitness (without serious stress). Everyone should remember that the hypertension is easier to prevent than to cure!
 Know your risk factors for high blood pressure https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/why-high-blood-pressure-is-a-silent-killer/know-your-risk-factors-for-high-blood-pressure
 The effects of hypertension on the body by the link https://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension/effect-on-body#1